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Goodhand, J. Violent conflict, poverty, and chronic poverty. Johnson, T.

A centuries old mechanism to resolve conflicts: The Jirga

No sign until the burst of fire: Understanding the Pakistan-Afghanistan frontier. International Security, 32 4 , Kakar, P. Harvard Law School. Mitchell, C. Conflict, social change, and conflict resolution.

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  • Afghanistan Language and Culture Program?

An Enquiry. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Nawaz, S. FATA—A most dangerous place.

Center for Strategic and International Studies, Rana, M. Taliban insurgency in Pakistan: A counterinsurgency perspective. Conflict and Peace Studies, 2 2 , Rashid, A.


Descent into chaos: the world's most unstable region and the threat to global security. London: Penguin. Rzehak, L. Doing Pashto: Pashtunwali as the ideal of honourable behaviour and tribal life among the Pashtuns: Afghanistan Analysts Network.

Siddique, A. The Pashtun question: the unresolved key to the future of Pakistan and Afghanistan. London: Hurst. Smith, D. Trends and causes of armed conflict Transforming Ethnopolitical Conflict pp. Suhrke, A. Conflict and Development In P. Haslam, S. Pierre Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taj, F. Taliban and anti-Taliban.

Talks with Taliban agreed -- with strings -

Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. Vlassenroot, K. Wardak, A. Building a post-war justice system in Afghanistan.

Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly)

Wood, E. The social processes of civil war: The wartime transformation of social networks. Journal of Social and Political Sciences. Asif Iqbal Dawar. Pages: Jirgas have long been used by ethnic Pashtuns along the Afghan-Pakistan border to resolve conflicts and make decisions.

At a similar, but larger, peace jirga in August in Kabul, Afghanistan's capital, then-Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf said military action and diplomacy were keys in the fight against the rise in Taliban extremism plaguing Pakistan. The border region has long been considered by U.

Pakistan and Afghanistan have been bitterly divided over the issue of dealing with extremists along the lawless border, particularly when Musharraf was in power. The Pakistan government that took over in March has listed dialogue with the opposition as part of a three-pronged strategy to bring about peace.

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The other strategies are social and economic development and, as a last resort, force. In Washington, Perino said Tuesday that the United States "realize s that we have to reach out on some level" to the militants, and the Bush administration is considering talks with the Taliban as part of its ongoing strategic review of Afghanistan. Another plan being developed under the direction of the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm.

Mike Mullen, focuses on the idea that Afghanistan and Pakistan are linked by a common insurgency that stretches along their border, according to a Pentagon official with knowledge of the issue.

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  7. The official did not want to be identified because he did not want to speak about the plan before Mullen introduces it. Mullen said earlier this month that empowering tribal militias that have influence in both Pakistan -- where U. By giving legitimate power to some militias, the plan addresses U. The official said the plan is expected to be completed later this year.

    There is no political timeline attached to the report, according to the official. The talks would not include al Qaeda, Gates said.